New York is situated in the United States, south of Canada, north of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and west of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont. Albany is the capital, and New York City is the largest city. New York is called the Empire State, a reference to its wealth and variety of resources.
New York’s area is 139,831 sq km (53,989 sq mi), with several natural regions. New York’s population is 18,000,000 making it the second most populous state. New York has the vibrant economy and is a major state in commercial, distribution, and financial activities. It leads the nation in wholesale and service business, and its ports handle much of the nation’s foreign trade. Wall Street, in New York City’s Manhattan borough, is considered the world’s financial center.
The state is one of the industrial powerhouses of the nation, and New York City dominates state employment. The printing and publishing industry, the leading source of industrial job, is heavily concentrated in the New York City metropolitan area. Brooklyn, in New York City, has huge sugar refineries and coffee and spice warehouses. The apparel industry is a major employer, and New York City is a center for the manufacture of women’s clothes and for garments. Other manufacturing sectors include chemical production, including pharmaceuticals, plastics, and synthetic rubbers; and the making of industrial machinery, particularly refrigeration and heating equipment.